# Timeline (nonfiction)

1400s

1452 Dec. 10: Mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, priest, maker of astronomical instruments, and professor Johannes Stöffler born.

1462 Feb. 1: Polymath Johannes Trithemius born. He will be remembered as a lexicographer, chronicler, cryptographer, and occultist.

1477 Jan. 16: Johannes Schöner born. He will enjoy a European wide reputation as an innovative and influential globe maker and cosmographer and as one of the continent's leading and most authoritative astrologers.

1500s

1541 Apr. 8: Physician and archaeologist Michele Mercati born. He will be one of the first scholars to recognize prehistoric stone tools as human-made rather than natural or mythologically created thunderstones.

1547 Jan. 16: Johannes Schöner dies. He enjoyed a European wide reputation as an innovative and influential globe maker and cosmographer and as one of the continent's leading and most authoritative astrologers.

1551 Jan. 17: Writer, humanist, and historian Pedro Mexía dies. He wrote

*Silva de varia lección*("A Miscellany of Several Lessons"), which became an early best seller across Europe.1555 Aug. 8: Mathematician and cartographer Oronce Finé dies. He was imprisoned in 1524, probably for practicing judicial astrology.

1561 Jan. 6: Mathematician and physicist Thomas Fincke born. He will introduce the modern names of the trigonometric functions tangent and secant.

1574 Jan. 17: Astrologer, mathematician, cosmologist, Qabalist and Rosicrucian apologist Robert Fludd born.

1581 Oct. 9: Mathematician and linguist Claude Gaspard Bachet de Méziriac born. He will do work in number theory and find a method of constructing magic squares.

1583 Feb. 23: Mathematician, astrologer, and astronomer Jean-Baptiste Morin born.

1591 Feb. 21: Mathematician and engineer Girard Desargues born. He will be one of the founders of projective geometry.

1593 Jun. 25: Physician and archaeologist Michele Mercati dies. He was one of the first scholars to recognize prehistoric stone tools as human-made rather than natural or mythologically created thunderstones.

1600s

1600 Feb. 17: Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and cosmological theorist Giordano Bruno is burned at the stake.

1600 Feb. 19: The Peruvian stratovolcano Huaynaputina explodes in the most violent eruption in the recorded history of South America.

1638 Feb. 26: Mathematician and linguist Claude Gaspard Bachet de Méziriac dies. He was the earliest writer who discussed the solution of indeterminate equations by means of continued fractions. He also did work in number theory and found a method of constructing magic squares.

1640 Mar. 18: Painter, mathematician, astronomer, and architect Philippe de La Hire born.

1656 Apr. 24: Mathematician and physicist Thomas Fincke dies. He introduced the modern names of the trigonometric functions tangent and secant.

1656 Nov. 6: Mathematician, astrologer, and astronomer Jean-Baptiste Morin dies.

1667 Apr. 29: Physician, satirist, and polymath John Arbuthnot born. He will invent the figure of John Bull.

1686 Nov. 25: Scientist and bishop Niels Steensen dies. He questioned explanations for tear production, the idea that fossils grow in the ground.

1697 Nov. 10: Satirist, painter, illustrator, and critic William Hogarth born. His work will range from realistic portraiture to comic strip-like series of pictures called "modern moral subjects".

1700s

1702 Mar. 4: Thief Jack Sheppard born. He will be arrested and imprisoned five times in 1724 but escape four times from prison, making him a notorious public figure, and wildly popular with the poorer classes.

1718 Apr. 21: Painter, mathematician, astronomer, and architect Philippe de La Hire dies.

1724 Feb. 5: Thief Jack Sheppard first arrested. He will be arrested and imprisoned five times in 1724 but escape four times from prison, making him a notorious public figure, and wildly popular with the poorer classes.

1724 Nov. 16: Thief Jack Sheppard hanged. He was arrested and imprisoned five times in 1724 but escaped four times from prison, making him a notorious public figure, and wildly popular with the poorer classes.

1730 Dec. 25: Physician and activist Filippo Mazzei born. He will act as an agent to purchase arms for Virginia during the American Revolutionary War.

1732: Inventor, astronomer, mathematician, clockmaker, and surveyor David Rittenhouse born. He will become the first Director of the United States Mint, hand-striking the new nation's first coins.

1732 Oct 29: Physicist and academic Laura Bassi is granted professorship in philosophy by the University of Bologna, thus also making her a member of the Academy of the Sciences.

1735 Feb. 27: Physician, satirist, and polymath John Arbuthnot dies. He invented the figure of John Bull.

1750 Mar. 16: Astronomer Caroline Herschel born. She will discover several comets, including the periodic comet 35P/Herschel-Rigollet, which bears her name.

1761 Apr. 7: Mathematician, philosopher, and minister Thomas Bayes dies. He is remembered for having formulated a specific case of the theorem that bears his name: Bayes' theorem.

1764: Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey born. His government will see the abolition of slavery in the British Empire.

1764 Oct. 26: Satirist, painter, illustrator, and critic William Hogarth dies. His work ranged from realistic portraiture to comic strip-like series of pictures called "modern moral subjects".

1773 Mar. 26: American captain and mathematician Nathaniel Bowditch born. He will be a founder of modern maritime navigation; his book

*The New American Practical Navigator*, first published in 1802, will be carried on board every commissioned U.S. Naval vessel.1776 Apr. 1: Mathematician, physicist, and philosopher Sophie Germain born. Her work on Fermat's Last Theorem will a foundation for mathematicians exploring the subject for hundreds of years after.

1777 Apr. 30: Mathematician, astronomer, and physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss born. He will have an exceptional influence in many fields of mathematics and science and be ranked as one of history's most influential mathematicians.

1768 Mar. 21: Mathematician and physicist Joseph Fourier born. He will initiate the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations.

1770: Physicist and academic Thomas Johann Seebeck born. He will discover the thermoelectric effect.

1777 May 29: Physician and engineer John Mudge elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and in the same year was awarded the Copley medal for his 'Directions for making the best Composition for the Metals for reflecting Telescopes; together with a Description of the Process for Grinding, Polishing, and giving the great Speculum the true Parabolic Curve'.

1777 Aug. 14: Physicist and chemist Hans Christian Ørsted born. He will discover that electric currents create magnetic fields, which was the first connection found between electricity and magnetism.

1780 Mar. 29: Adventurer Jørgen Jørgensen born. He will sail to Iceland, declaring the country independent from Denmark and pronouncing himself its ruler, intending to found a new republic following the United States of America and France.

1788 Feb 20: Physicist and academic Laura Bassi dies. She was one of the key figures in introducing Newton's ideas of physics and natural philosophy to Italy.

1788 Feb. 21: Scientist, inventor, and engineer Francis Ronalds born. He will be knighted for creating the first working electric telegraph.

1791 Dec. 26: Polymath Charles Babbage born. He will pioneer the concept of a digital programmable computer.

1793 Mar. 26: Physician and engineer John Mudge dies. He was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer, and often regarded as the "father of civil engineering".

1795 Jun. 19: Surgeon and gentleman scientist James Braid born. He will be an important and influential pioneer of hypnotism and hypnotherapy.

1796 Jun. 26: Inventor, astronomer, mathematician, clockmaker, and surveyor David Rittenhouse dies. He was the first Director of the United States Mint, hand-striking the new nation's first coins.

1799 Jan. 9: Mathematician, philosopher, theologian, and humanitarian Maria Gaetana Agnesi dies. She is credited with writing the first book discussing both differential and integral calculus.

1800s

1801 Aug. 28: Mathematician and philosopher Antoine Augustin Cournot born. He will introduce the ideas of functions and probability into economic analysis.

1804: Mathematician and academic Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi born. He will make fundamental contributions to elliptic functions, dynamics, differential equations, and number theory.

1811 Mar. 11: Mathematician and astronomer Urbain Le Verrier born. He will predict the existence and position of Neptune using only mathematics, an event which will be widely regarded as one of the most remarkable moments of 19th century science.

1811 Apr. 7: Astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher Hasan Tahsini born. He will become one of the most prominent scholars of the Ottoman Empire of the 19th century.

1814 Sep. 3: Mathematician and academic James Joseph Sylvester born. He will make fundamental contributions to matrix theory, invariant theory, number theory, partition theory, and combinatorics.

1814 Nov. 25: Physician and physicist Julius Robert von Mayer born. He will describe the vital chemical process now referred to as oxidation as the primary source of energy for any living creature; but his achievements will be overlooked and priority for the discovery of the mechanical equivalent of heat will be attributed to James Joule.

1815 Dec. 10: Mathematician and writer Ada Lovelace born.

Filippo Mazzei (nonfiction)|1816 Mar. 19: Physician and activist Filippo Mazzei dies. He acted as an agent to purchase arms for Virginia during the American Revolutionary War.

1818 Dec. 24: Physicist and brewer James Prescott Joule born. He will study the nature of heat, and discover its relationship to mechanical work

1822 Jan. 17: Statistician, progressive, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician Francis Galton dies.

1822 Mar. 8: Pharmacist, inventor, and industrialist Ignacy Łukasiewicz born. He will build the world's first oil refinery and invent the kerosene lamp.

1822 Mar. 11: Mathematician, economist, and academic Joseph Louis François Bertrand born. He will work in the fields of number theory, differential geometry, probability theory, economics and thermodynamics.

1824 Mar. 12: Physicist and academic Gustav Kirchhoff born. He will contribute to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.

1824 Jun. 26: Lord Kelvin born. He will do much to unify the emerging discipline of physics in its modern form.

1827 Apr. 3: Physicist, musician, and academic Ernst Chladni dies. He has been called both the father of acoustics and the father of meteoritics.

1830 May 16: Mathematician and physicist Joseph Fourier dies. He initiated the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations.

1831 Jun. 27: Mathematician, physicist, and philosopher Sophie Germain dies. Her work on Fermat's Last Theorem provided a foundation for mathematicians exploring the subject for hundreds of years after.

1831 Dec. 10: Physicist and academic Thomas Johann Seebeck dies. He discovered the thermoelectric effect.

1837 Nov. 23: Theoretical physicist and academic Johannes Diderik van der Waals born. He will win the 1910 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids.

1838 Mar. 16: American captain and mathematician Nathaniel Bowditch dies. He was a founder of modern maritime navigation; his book

*The New American Practical Navigator*, first published in 1802, is still carried on board every commissioned U.S. Naval vessel.1841 Jan. 20: Adventurer Jørgen Jørgensen dies. He sailed to Iceland, declaring the country independent from Denmark and pronouncing himself its ruler, intending to found a new republic following the United States of America and France.

1841 Nov. 25: Mathematician and logician Ernst Schröder born. His monumental

*Vorlesungen über die Algebra der Logik*will prepare the way for the emergence of mathematical logic as a separate discipline in the twentieth century by systematizing the various systems of formal logic of the day.1845 Mar. 3: Mathematician and philosopher Georg Cantor born. He will invent set theory, a fundamental area of mathematical inquiry.

1764 Jul. 17: Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey dies. His government will see the abolition of slavery in the British Empire.

1847 Mar. 3: Engineer, inventor, and academic Alexander Graham Bell born. He will patent the telephone in 1876.

1848 Jan. 9: Astronomer Caroline Herschel dies. She discovered several comets, including the periodic comet 35P/Herschel-Rigollet, which bears her name.

1851 Feb. 18: Mathematician and academic Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi dies. He made fundamental contributions to elliptic functions, dynamics, differential equations, and number theory.

1851 Mar. 9: Physicist and chemist Hans Christian Ørsted dies. He discovered that electric currents create magnetic fields, which was the first connection found between electricity and magnetism.

1852 Apr. 12: Mathematician and academic Ferdinand von Lindemann born. He will prove (1882) that π (pi) is a transcendental number.

1853 Sept 21: Physicist and academic Heike Kamerlingh Onnes born. He will receive widespread recognition for his work, including the 1913 Nobel Prize in Physics for "his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led,

*inter alia*, to the production of liquid helium".1854 Apr. 29: Mathematician, physicist, and engineer Henri Poincaré born. He will make many original fundamental contributions to pure and applied mathematics, mathematical physics, and celestial mechanics.

1855 Feb 23: Mathematician, astronomer, and physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss dies. He had an exceptional influence in many fields of mathematics and science and is ranked as one of history's most influential mathematicians.

1856 Jul. 10: Electrical engineer Nikola Tesla born. He will make pioneering contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

1859 Nov. 24: On the Origin of Species published.

1860: Surgeon and gentleman scientist James Braid dies. He was an important and influential pioneer of hypnotism and hypnotherapy.

1865 Apr. 9: Mathematician and electrical engineer Charles Proteus Steinmetz born. He will foster the development of alternating current, formulating mathematical theories which will advance the expansion of the electric power industry in the United States.

1868 Mar. 22: Physicist Robert Andrews Millikan born. He will win the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1923 for the measurement of the elementary electronic charge and for his work on the photoelectric effect.

1869 Apr. 5: Physicist, mathematician, and engineer Sergey Chaplygin born. He will be known for mathematical formulas such as Chaplygin's equation, and for a hypothetical substance in cosmology called Chaplygin gas, named after him.

1873 Aug. 8: Scientist, inventor, and engineer Francis Ronalds dies. He was knighted for creating the first working electric telegraph.

1876 Mar. 10: Alexander Graham Bell makes the first successful telephone call by saying "Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you."

1877 Mar. 31: Mathematician and philosopher Antoine Augustin Cournot dies. He introduced the ideas of functions and probability into economic analysis.

1877 Sep. 23: Mathematician and astronomer Urbain Le Verrier dies. He predicted the existence and position of Neptune using only mathematics, an event widely regarded as one of the most remarkable moments of 19th century science.

1879 Apr. 14: Physicist, engineer, and academic Albert Einstein born. He will develop the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

1878 Mar. 20: Physician and physicist Julius Robert von Mayer dies. In 1842, Mayer described the vital chemical process now referred to as oxidation as the primary source of energy for any living creature. His achievements were overlooked and priority for the discovery of the mechanical equivalent of heat was attributed to James Joule in the following year.

1881 Jul 3: Astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher Hasan Tahsini dies. He was one of the most prominent scholars of the Ottoman Empire of the 19th century.

1882 Mar. 23: Mathematician Emmy Noether born. She will make landmark contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics.

1884 Jan. 28: Physicist and explorer Auguste Piccard (nonfiction) born. He will make record-breaking hot air balloon flights, with which he will study Earth's upper atmosphere and cosmic rays, and invent of the first bathyscaphe.

1884 Mar. 21: Mathematician George David Birkhoff born. He will become one of the most important leaders in American mathematics in his generation.

1886 Mar. 7: Mathematician and physicist G. I. Taylor born. He will make major contributions to fluid dynamics and wave theory.

1887 Oct. 7: Physicist and academic Gustav Kirchhoff dies. He contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.

1889 Feb. 7: Engineer and theorist Harry Nyquist born. He will do early theoretical work on determining the bandwidth requirements for transmitting information, laying the foundations for later advances by Claude Shannon, which will lead to the development of information theory.

1889 Oct. 11: Physicist and brewer James Prescott Joule dies. He studied the nature of heat, and discovered its relationship to mechanical work

1891 Feb. 17: Mathematician Abraham Fraenkel born. He will contribute to axiomatic set theory, and publish a biography of George Cantor.

1892 Mar. 30: Mathematician and academic Stefan Banach born. He will be one of the founders of modern functional analysis.

1892 Aug. 15: Physicist and academic Louis de Broglie born. He will postulate the wave nature of electrons and suggest that all matter has wave properties, winning the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1929, after the wave-like behavior of matter is first experimentally demonstrated in 1927.

1892 Sep. 10: American physicist and academic Arthur Compton born. He will win the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, demonstrating the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.

1893 Mar. 1: Electrical engineer Nikola Tesla gives the first public demonstration of radio in St. Louis, Missouri.

1897 Mar. 15: Mathematician and academic James Joseph Sylvester dies. He made fundamental contributions to matrix theory, invariant theory, number theory, partition theory, and combinatorics.

1898 Mar. 3: Mathematician Emil Artin born. He will work on algebraic number theory, contributing to class field theory and a new construction of L-functions. He will also contribute to the pure theories of rings, groups and fields.

1898 Apr. 1: Mathematician and anthropologist William James Sidis born. He will become famous first for his precocity and later for his eccentricity and withdrawal from public life.

1898 Dec. 26: Marie and Pierre Curie announce the isolation of radium.

1900s

1900 Mar. 8: Physicist and computer scientist Howard H. Aiken born. He will design the Harvard Mark I computer.

1900 Apr. 5: Mathematician, economist, and academic Joseph Louis François Bertrand dies. He worked in the fields of number theory, differential geometry, probability theory, economics and thermodynamics.

1900 Jul. 4: Physicist and academic Ukichiro Nakaya dies. He will creat the first artificial snowflakes.

1900 Dec. 17: Mathematician and academic Mary Cartwright born. She will do pioneering work in what will later be called chaos theory.

1902 Apr. 2: Graphic designer and typographer Jan Tschichold born. He will become a leading advocate of Modernist design, but later condemn Modernist design in general as being authoritarian and inherently fascistic.

1903 Jan. 17: The short film

*Electrocuting an Elephant*is released. It documents the killing of an elephant named Topsy.1903 Feb. 1: Physicist and mathematician Sir George Stokes, 1st Baronet dies. He made seminal contributions to fluid dynamics (including the Navier–Stokes equations) and to physical optics.

1904 Apr. 22: American physicist and academic J. Robert Oppenheimer born. His achievements in physics will include the Born–Oppenheimer approximation for molecular wavefunctions, work on the theory of electrons and positrons, the Oppenheimer–Phillips process in nuclear fusion, and the first prediction of quantum tunneling.

1906 Aug. 9: Inventor Philo Farnsworth born. He will make many crucial contributions to the early development of all-electronic television.

1907 Feb. 9: Mathematician and academic Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter born. He will become of the greatest geometers of the 20th century.

1907 Dec. 17: Lord Kelvin dies. He did much to unify the emerging discipline of physics in its modern form.

1909: Physicist Nathan Rosen born. He will develop the idea of the Einstein–Rosen bridge, later named the wormhole.

1911 Apr. 8: Physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovers superconductivity.

1911 Jul. 9: Theoretical physicist John Archibald Wheeler born. He will link the term "black hole" to objects with gravitational collapse, and coin the terms "quantum foam", "neutron moderator", "wormhole" and "it from bit".

1912 Jul. 17: Mathematician, physicist, and engineer Henri Poincaré dies. He made many original fundamental contributions to pure and applied mathematics, mathematical physics, and celestial mechanics.

1913: A group of meteors is visible across much of the eastern seaboard of North and South America, leading astronomers to conclude the source had been a small, short-lived natural satellite of the Earth.

1914 Apr. 11: Mathematician Dorothy Lewis Bernstein born. She will be the first woman to be elected president of the Mathematics Association of America.

1918 Jan. 6: Mathematician and philosopher Georg Cantor dies. He invented set theory, a fundamental area of mathematical inquiry.

1919 Oct. 18: Statistician and educator George E. P. Box born. He will be called "one of the great statistical minds of the 20th century".

1920 Jan. 2: Writer Isaac Asimov born. He will be considered one of the "Big Three" science fiction writers during his lifetime.

1922 Aug. 2: Engineer, inventor, and academic Alexander Graham Bell dies. He patented the telephone in 1876.

1923 Jan. 8: Computer scientist Joseph Weizenbaum born. He will become one of the fathers of modern artificial intelligence.

1923 Mar. 8: Theoretical physicist and academic Johannes Diderik van der Waals dies. He won the 1910 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids.

1923 Apr. 2: Polymath George Spencer-Brown born. He will write

*Laws of Form*, calling it the "primary algebra" and the "calculus of indications".1923 Jun. 2: Mathematician and economist Lloyd Shapley born. He will define game theory as "a mathematical study of conflict and cooperation."

1923 Oct. 26: Mathematician and electrical engineer Charles Proteus Steinmetz dies. He fostered the development of alternating current, formulating mathematical theories which advanced the expansion of the electric power industry in the United States.

1924 Mar. 3: Mathematician and computer scientist John Backus born. He will invent the Backus–Naur form (BNF) notation to define formal language syntax.

1926 Feb. 21: Physicist and academic Heike Kamerlingh Onnes dies. He received widespread recognition for his work, including the 1913 Nobel Prize in Physics for (in the words of the committee) "his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led,

*inter alia*, to the production of liquid helium".1927 Sep. 7: The first fully electronic television system is achieved by inventor Philo Farnsworth.

1928 Mar. 9: Engineer Gerald Bull born. He will attempt to build artillery guns capable of launching satellites into orbit.

1928 Apr. 28: The Pineapple Primary in Illinois, the culmination of a political campaign which was marked by numerous acts of violence, mostly in Chicago and elsewhere in Cook County. In the six months prior to the primary election, 62 bombings took place in the city, and at least two politicians were killed.

1928 Sep. 23: Inventor Philo Farnsworth demonstrates his electronic television system to the press.

1928 Mar. 28: Mathematician and theorist Alexander Grothendieck born. He will become the leading figure in the creation of modern algebraic geometry.

1928 Jul. 23: Astronomer and academic Vera Rubin born. She will discover the discrepancy between the predicted angular motion of galaxies and the observed motion, by studying galactic rotation curves.

1932 Jan. 5: Novelist, literary critic, and philosopher Umberto Eco born. He will cite James Joyce and Jorge Luis Borges as the two modern authors who will have influenced his work the most.

1933 Feb 22: Engineer and inventor Justin Capră born. He will design fuel-efficient cars, unconventional engines, aircraft, and jet backpacks.

1934 Aug. 25: Inventor Philo Farnsworth demonstrates his electronic television system to the public at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia.

1935 April 14: Mathematician Emmy Noether dies. She made landmark contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics.

1938 Jul. 27: Game designer Gary Gygax born.

1939 March 6: Mathematician and academic Ferdinand von Lindemann dies. He proved (1882) that π (pi) is a transcendental number.

1940 Feb. 27: Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben discover carbon-14. Its presence in organic materials is the basis of the radiocarbon dating method pioneered by Willard Libby and colleagues (1949) to date archaeological, geological and hydrogeological samples.

1941 Apr. 23: Computer programmer and engineer Ray Tomlinson born. He will implement the first email system on the the ARPANET system, including the "@" separator which is still in use today.

1942 Oct. 8: Physicist, mathematician, and engineer Sergey Chaplygin dies. He is known for mathematical formulas such as Chaplygin's equation, and for a hypothetical substance in cosmology called Chaplygin gas, named after him.

1943 Jan. 7: Electrical engineer Nikola Tesla dies. He made pioneering contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

1943 Mar. 9: Computer scientist Jef Raskin born. He will conceive and start the Macintosh project for Apple in the late 1970s.

1944 Jul. 17: Mathematician and anthropologist William James Sidis dies. He became famous first for his precocity and later for his eccentricity and withdrawal from public life.

1944 Nov. 12: Mathematician George David Birkhoff dies. He was one of the most important leaders in American mathematics in his generation.

1945 Aug. 31: Mathematician and academic Stefan Banach dies. He was one of the founders of modern functional analysis.

1949 Jan. 17: Computer scientist Anita Borg born. She will found the Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology.

1953 Dec. 19: Physicist Robert Andrews Millikan dies. He won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1923 for the measurement of the elementary electronic charge and for his work on the photoelectric effect.

1953 Apr. 13: CIA director Allen Dulles authorizes the mind-control program Project MKUltra.

1955 Apr. 18: Physicist, engineer, and academic Albert Einstein dies. He developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

1961 Jan. 17: U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower delivers a televised farewell address to the nation three days before leaving office, in which he warns against the accumulation of power by the "military–industrial complex."

1961 Apr. 12: Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes the first human to travel into outer space and perform the first manned orbital flight (Vostok 1).

1962 Dec. 20: Mathematician Emil Artin dies. He worked on algebraic number theory, contributing to class field theory and a new construction of L-functions. He also contributed to the pure theories of rings, groups and fields.

1962 Mar. 15: American physicist and academic Arthur Compton dies. He won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.

1962 Mar. 24: Physicist and explorer Auguste Piccard (nonfiction) dies. He made record-breaking hot air balloon flights, with which he studied Earth's upper atmosphere and cosmic rays, and invented of the first bathyscaphe, FNRS-2, with which he made a number of unmanned dives to explore the ocean.

1962 Apr. 11: Physicist and academic Ukichiro Nakaya dies. He created the first artificial snowflakes.

1965 Mar. 21: NASA launches Ranger 9, the last in a series of unmanned lunar space probes.

1965 Mar. 24: NASA spacecraft Ranger 9, equipped to convert its signals into a form suitable for showing on domestic television, brings images of the Moon into ordinary homes before crash landing.

1965 Oct. 15: Mathematician Abraham Fraenkel dies. He contributed to axiomatic set theory, and published a biography of George Cantor.

1966 Jan. 17: Palomares incident: A B-52 bomber collides with a KC-135 Stratotanker over Spain, killing seven airmen, and dropping three 70-kiloton nuclear bombs near the town of Palomares and another one into the sea.

1967 Feb. 18: American physicist and academic J. Robert Oppenheimer dies. His achievements in physics included the Born–Oppenheimer approximation for molecular wavefunctions, work on the theory of electrons and positrons, the Oppenheimer–Phillips process in nuclear fusion, and the first prediction of quantum tunneling.

1971 Mar. 11: Inventor Philo Farnsworth dies. He made many crucial contributions to the early development of all-electronic television.

1973 Mar. 14: Physicist and computer scientist Howard H. Aiken dies. He designed the Harvard Mark I computer.

1974 Aug. 11: Graphic designer and typographer Jan Tschichold dies. He was a leading advocate of Modernist design, but later condemn Modernist design in general as being authoritarian and inherently fascistic.

1975 Jun. 27: Mathematician and physicist G. I. Taylor dies. He made major contributions to fluid dynamics and wave theory.

1976 Feb. 1: Physicist and academic Werner Heisenberg dies. He introduced the uncertainty principle -- in quantum mechanics, any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle can be known.

1976 Apr. 4: Engineer and theorist Harry Nyquist dies. He did early theoretical work on determining the bandwidth requirements for transmitting information, laying the foundations for later advances by Claude Shannon, which led to the development of information theory.

1980 Nov. 20: Lake Peigneur drains into an underlying salt deposit. A misplaced Texaco oil probe had been drilled into the Diamond Crystal Salt Mine, causing water to flow down into the mine, eroding the edges of the hole.

1986 Feb 20: The Soviet Union launches its Mir spacecraft. Remaining in orbit for 15 years, it is occupied for ten of those years.

1987 Feb 22: Artist Andy Warhol dies. He was a leading figure in the Pop art movement.

1987 Mar. 19: Physicist and academic Louis de Broglie dies. He postulated the wave nature of electrons and suggested that all matter has wave properties. He won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1929, after the wave-like behavior of matter was first experimentally demonstrated in 1927.

1988 Feb. 5: Mathematician Dorothy Lewis Bernstein dies. She was the first woman to be elected president of the Mathematics Association of America.

1990 Mar. 22: Engineer Gerald Bull assassinated. He attempted to build artillery guns which could launch satellites into orbit.

1992 Apr. 6: Writer Isaac Asimov dies. He was considered one of the "Big Three" science fiction writers during his lifetime.

1995 Feb. 22: The Corona reconnaissance satellite program, in existence from 1959 to 1972, is declassified.

1995 Dec. 18: Physicist Nathan Rosen dies. He developed the idea of the Einstein–Rosen bridge, later named the wormhole.

1997 Jan. 17: Astronomer and academic Clyde Tombaugh dies. He discovered Pluto, as well as many asteroids.

1998 Apr. 3: Mathematician and academic Mary Cartwright dies. She did pioneering work in chaos theory.

2000s

2001 March 23: The Mir spacecraft is de-orbited. It had been in orbit for 15 years, it was occupied for ten of those years.

2003 Mar. 31: Mathematician and academic Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter dies. He was one of the greatest geometers of the 20th century.

2003 Apr. 6: Computer scientist Anita Borg dies. She founded Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology.

2005 Feb. 26: Computer scientist Jef Raskin dies. He was a human–computer interface expert best known for conceiving and starting the Macintosh project for Apple in the late 1970s.

2005 Aug. 12: The

*Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter*launched.2006 Mar. 10: The

*Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter*arrives at Mars.2007 Mar. 17: Mathematician and computer scientist John Backus dies. He invented the Backus–Naur form (BNF), a widely used notation to define formal language syntax.

2008 Mar. 4: Game designer Gary Gygax dies.

2008 Mar. 5: Computer scientist Joseph Weizenbaum dies. He is considered one of the fathers of modern artificial intelligence.

2008 Apr. 13: Theoretical physicist John Archibald Wheeler dies. He linked the term "black hole" to objects with gravitational collapse, and coined the terms "quantum foam", "neutron moderator", "wormhole" and "it from bit".

2011 Mar. 23: Jean Bartik dies. She was one of the original programmers for the ENIAC computer.

2012 Feb. 17: Mathematician and theorist Nicolaas Govert de Bruijn dies. He made contributions in the fields of analysis, number theory, combinatorics, and logic.

2013 Mar. 28: Statistician and educator George E. P. Box dies. He has been called "one of the great statistical minds of the 20th century".

2014 Nov. 13: Mathematician and theorist Alexander Grothendieck dies. He was the leading figure in the creation of modern algebraic geometry.

2016 Feb. 9: Novelist, literary critic, and philosopher Umberto Eco dies. He cited James Joyce and Jorge Luis Borges as the two modern authors who have influenced his work the most.

2016 Mar. 5: Computer programmer and engineer Ray Tomlinson dies. He implemented the first email system on ARPANET, including the "@" separator which is still in use today.

2016 Mar. 12: Mathematician and economist Lloyd Shapley dies. He defined game theory as "a mathematical study of conflict and cooperation."

2016 Mar. 13: Philosopher, mathematician, and computer scientist Hilary Putnam dies. In philosophy of mathematics, he argued for the reality of mathematical entities, later espousing the view that mathematics is not purely logical, but "quasi-empirical".

2016 Dec. 25: Astronomer and academic Vera Rubin dies. She discovered the discrepancy between the predicted angular motion of galaxies and the observed motion, by studying galactic rotation curves.

2016 Aug. 25: Polymath George Spencer-Brown dies. He wrote

*Laws of Form*, calling it the "primary algebra" and the "calculus of indications".